++ Bura winds affect the Adriatic, an explanation ++

++ Bura winds affect the Adriatic, an explanation ++

Strong Bura winds are currently causing marine warnings in the Adriatic and affects the coastal areas of the Balkans, caused by a Genua low that gradually moved SE.

Gusts that exceed 120 km/h from the Guild of Trieste towards Split. These measures respectively measured in PAG, Makarska. Source; windy.tv
  • What are Bura winds?

Bura winds are the dry, very cold Adriatic northern (from NNE to ENE) winds characterized with intense wind gusts.

It is considered a katabatic wind (from Greek, it means “down hill” or “fall wind”) and it derives from the word “Boreas” – Βορέας, the North.

Bora (Italian) winds occur through all the year and blow over the slopes and coastal mountains. The cold NE’er air accelerates simultaneously once it blows over the mountains due to it’s weight and hits the seas surface with Gale force. The bora is often associated with a typical “sea dust” caused by the gushes that temporarily lift drops of water and a sea foam that reaches with big amounts on shore.

  • Common locations;

The strongest winds occur along the coastal areas from Trieste to the Albanian border, but along the Adriatic shore the Bura has it’s favorable locations where it is both intense and more common specifically in; the Gulf of Trieste, the Kvarner Gulf, Velebit Channel, Šibenek area, the Kaštela Bay, Makarska and surroundings Žuljana cove on the Pelješac peninsula. Further from the coast, the Bura appears to be increase in both directional regularity and force, thus in the area of i.e. Palagruža Isle it reached storm force winds. The town of Senj near Rijeka is known for the location where Bura affects with strongest disruptive winds in excess of 220 km/h.

Obviously the strongest winds occur along the E side of the Adriatic, the W side is affected by much weaker winds.

  • White or black bora?

The Bura winds are classified into the white – and black Bura, associated with two significant weather patterns.

Initially the Bura winds are most commonly accompanied by a cold pool that extends at least over the mountainous areas of the Balkans, from which the pressure gradient is higher east of the mountains than over the Mediterranean.

When the dense cold pool next reaches the altitude of the mountains, or the level of that specific geopotential height, the Bura initiates to break through, while the two divided airmasses tend to equalize.
The light or white Bora (Italian; Bora Chiara) is evolved by the anticyclonic pattern, while a high is persistent over C Europe and a shallow low is centered over the S of the Mediterranean. Generally the white Bora is characterized by its dry, clear but cold weather accompanied by good visibility in the lee of the coastal mountainous areas. Additionally, thick clouds occur along the crests of the mountains during upward motions while the air descends next on the lee sides in the west. The clouds subsequently disappear in the descending air and appear to be as a cap cloud or lenticular cloud. Clear Air Turbulance (CAT) has been reported with the existence of the Light Bora.

The dark or black Bora (Italian; Bora Scura) is associated with the cyclonic pattern and most often occurs when a Genua low is shifting towards Adriatic – or Ionian Sea. Accompanied weather across the area are clouds and rain. While the Dark Bura appears to be less intense than the Light Bura, but it can bring widespread disruptive cold rain and substantial snow amounts. During most situations the visibility is poor and the Dark Bura is associated with rain/drizzle and stratus.

Dark Bura this afternoon 17-01-2017 Croatia. Photo by Lucijan Španîc
  • Bura in numbers;

The Bura can reach up to 220 km/h winds, but had been recorded as high of 304 km/h. The strongest Bura tends to occur in Senj, because of its position and the orography, the Bura is able to blow in multiple directions. In 1956 a gust in excess of 231 km/h was measured.

Other winds of the Adriatic;

  • Jugo – warm Adriatic wind

Jugo is a SE’ly wind and blows across the Adriatic when a cyclone develops over that specific area. It bring clouds and rain while the low matures and pressure deepens. The development is relatively slow and it can usually be noticed three days in advance and last generally longer than Bura, 5-7 days and even longer in winter. Unlike Bura, Jugo is a continues wind that gradually gains strength.

  • Mistral

The mistral is considered the friendly wind and usually blows from the NW which is an evolvement by the differences of temperatures between the mainland and sea. It’s most common from Spring to Autumn. It usually commences at 9-10 in the morning, peaks at the afternoon and decreases again during sunset.

  • Tramuntana

The name is derived from the Latin word “transmontanus” which means “a wind that comes across the mountains”. This name is widely used across the Mediterranean and blows usually with a moderate strength accompanied by cold winds during clear weather. It reveals or announced fair weather in general.

  • Levanter

This refers to an E wind and derives from the Italian word “Levante” which means “east”. The Latin word means “uplift, elevate”. Most commonly it’s a moderate wind that lifts clouds, moisture and precipitation. A very common location Levanter insist is the area of Gibraltar, where these typical multilayer (lenticular) clouds form over the famous Rock of Gibraltar.

Typical Levanter over Gibraltar Rock, photo by Stephanie Ball.
  • Ostro

Ostro is a S wind, from which it’s name derives from the Latin word “Auster” which means “South”. Despite the fact it doesn’t insist long the wind could gain considerable strength.

  • Libeccio

This is a SW Adriatic wind and is usually dry and warm. This wind rises across the Adriatic after Jugo, when the Mediterranean low arrives from the Sea and reaches the W and C coastal areas of Croatia. Usually the wind doesn’t last long but it can be significant enough since it causes considerable squalls. In particularly in harbors estimated sea surface levels rise that are open to the SW.
At least until Thursday afternoon the Bura insists, until the long wave trough descends towards Iberian Peninsula, things gradually settle during the evening.

Source; www.wxcharts.eu

++ Rare Ice balls on the beach of Poland ++

++ Rare Ice balls on the beach of Poland ++

Anyone in for a snowball fight? Nature makes its own collection of rare snowballs on the shore of Kadyny in Poland;

Photo by Julia Piotr Zinko


These ice balls are created when ice slush is formed on the surface of the water and is pushed together by the motion of the waves. The ice then floats around on the surface being polished by the water and eventually gets thrown onto the beach. Nature is the best artist of all, fantastic natural phenomenon.
The ice balls can grow much bigger than this, becoming ice boulders. This only occurs in very specific weather conditions, including a temperature between 24 and 30 degrees, accompanied by brisk winds.

Lake Michigan, by Rachelle Boudry

The same event occurred last year in november along coastal areas of the Gulf of Ob, Siberia and two years ago on the Baltic coast of N Poland and back in 2014 along the shores of Lake Michigan US.

Ob, source; siberiantimes.com

++ Live Ticker low Finjas S and SE Europe ++

++ Live Ticker low Finjas S and SE Europe ++

++ Live ticker low Finjas S and SE Europe and expected arctic blast towards Iberian Peninsula ++

A dump of snow in the Abruzzo region, this town of Citta Sant’ Angelo is completely buried. Video by Maria Savini



An impression from Kvarner Croatia, notice the winds on the seas surface moving away from shore, video by @putovima_frankopana:

Also there wind gusts exceed 120 km/h



17-01-2017 18:20 CET; Strong Bura winds affect Croatia and the Adriatic, gusts exceed 120 km/h. Like here in Pag;



On this RGB airmass satellite image of eumetsat the perturbation of the upper cooler airmass is recognizable by the red and blue color which extends all the way to the C Mediterranean. Red is relatively cold but dry air while blue consists of moist. The long wave trough, being dense, increases instability over the relatively warm sea water. The convection and sea effect snow is consists of the thick deep white airmasses and the white puffs dots that refer to cumulonimbus clouds.

Opposite of that, the division of the warm sector is visible over the UK (the green) and reveals the Azores high’s ridge.

The most intense showers are currently present over the Adriatic, Puglia and Peloponnesos while an occluded front pushes through. Cloud tops exceed locally -60°C.



17-01-2017 16:14 CET; Several multicell thunderstorms accompanied by excessive precipitation and snow are moving in an anti clockwise direction around the Mediterranean low, currently just being centered off of Lazio Italy.
In particularly for parts of Sardegna, Corsica, Malta and Gozo,  W Greece, Sicily, Calabria and Puglia there is a risk of flooding while several prefrontal troughs and occluded fronts push through. Heavy snowfall is present on higher altitudes.

The risk of an isolated waterspout event can’t be excluded.


It remains unsettled at least until Thursday afternoon with widespread excessive rainfall, in particularly along coastal areas of W Italy with (sea-effect) snowfall more inland on higher altitude especially for the Abruzzo region, Adriatic coastal areas, W Greece, SW Turkey. Locally, models indicate another 200 mm of accumulations until Friday. This simulation gives an impression of the precipitation type and areas affected;

Bura winds remain in effect for parts of N Adriatic simultaneously as well.



16-01-2017 2300 CET; Frigidly cold temperatures for the Alpine regions currently, while the arctic continental airmass descends SW towards Iberian Peninsula. Persistent frost is present and even cooler wind chills. The temperature exceeded -26°c just now again for Trentino in Italy. But not only, widespread freezing temperatures are present from E towards C Europe, while the Azores blocking high ascends towards UK by tomorrow with it’s associated ridge;

One of the typical characteristics the meridional flow consists of (Rossby waves)  are the amplified troughs and ridges that are able to plunge or perturbate, which have been persistent in our circulation since February last year. Temperature records both above – and below average but also high amounts of precipitation accompanied with unsettled spells in the south are culpably of this current circulation.



16-01-2017 2045 CET Impressions from Chieti Abruzzo currently, affected by strong snow showers accompanied by thunderstorms and thundersnow.





16-01-2017 2030 CET; Continueous snowfall for Guardiagrele (CH) currently, in Abruzzo snowfall in excess of 60-70 cm was measured until now. In some places roads are blocked by broken trees caused by the heavy snowfall.



Very interesting determined runs of Arpege indicate locally over 3,75 meter of snow until Friday 20-01 for parts of Abruzzo in Italy, but also impressive amounts of snow for C Greece.



Impressive amounts of snow for Benasque Spain reached us this morning;



16-01-2017 09:07 CET Cold temperatures are present across Europe already with even lower windchill temperatures, -29°c for parts of Trentino Italy;



Impressive accumulations of snow last night for parts of the Haute-Savoie in France and Huesca in Spain, locally 1 meter of snow accumulated, not even to mention the snow drifts caused by the strong gales and winds.

According to latest runs of GFS 025°c huge temperature anomalies are expected on wednesday which exceed locally -15°c for parts of SW France and N Spain as cooler airmass perburbates to the SW of Europe. Also notice the frigidly cold temperatures for the Alpine region. From E Europe to C Europe temperatures hardly exceed zero and it remains below freezing point. Also for parts of Benelux and France a relatively cold week is ahead.



As the long wave trough remains persistent, the cooler airmass appears to descend towards Iberian Peninsula by Thursday which will also brings persistent frost for the next consecutive days from E to C Europe.



Until Thursday models indicate over 100 mm of accumulations for parts of Evia Greece, SW Turkey and along the Adriatic coastal areas. Locally a sum of precipitation of 200 mm is even likely according to latest runs;



As mentioned before during the upper cooler airmass the environment becomes favorable for convection to develop while there are still relatively warm sea water temperatures. Instability increases mainly overseas but also along coastal areas and locations where there is orographic lift during winter. We have seen that during events the previous week in NW Europe with sea-effect snow showers accompanied with thundersnow. These are considered typical odd showers or cold air showers. Two weeks ago heavy lake-/sea-effect occurred for parts of S Turkey and caused a huge snowdump. Added the meteogram for Thessaly in Greece which indicates thundersnow events for Greece this upcoming night as instability builds;




Next an impression from Venezia in Italy during heavy snowfall, snow showers continue and perturbation occurs all the way to Sicily. Overall road conditions are poor accompanied with ice while temperatures easily reduce below zero in the aforementioned areas.



The 12z run of GFS 0,25° indicates a persistent low over Lazio Italy at least until Thursday, but then it might shift towards Iberian Peninsula with a dense cut-off while the continental arctic perturbation is reminiscing. Until then strong wind gusts accompanied with the aforementioned risks remain in effect.



According to Arpege widespread excessive precipitation and snowfall occurs in the aforementioned areas;


16-01-2017 00:00 CET; widespread moderate to heavy snowfall occurs for the Pyrenees, simultaneously with excessive precipitation, accompanied by multicell thunderstorms, locally thundersnow events and snowfall on higher altitude for parts of Italy, Malta, Greece and W Turkey. Low Finjas gradually moves towards Puglia while a secondary low extends towards N Aegean tonight while several prefrontal troughs and fronts push through this night. Widespread light to moderate snowfall occurs for parts of Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, C Greece, Peloponessos, S Albania, S FYROM and far NW Turkey.



15-01-2017 22:00 CET; gusts exceeding 100 km/h were measured at Cadaques in Spain, notice the low being centered just off of Lazio Italy.



Blizzard like conditions already occurred today 15/01 on the Pyrenees under influence of strong mistral winds / N maritime winds while the Azores blocking high is persistent, these two videos were taken in Andorra, where snow accumulated locally up to 1 meter during cold front passage.


13-01-2017; As the cooler airmass or long wave trough moves currently gradually to SE, a (still) shallow Genua low becomes space and extends accompanied with a cold pool. From Tuesday gfs indicates a secondary low of the low pressure area to affect next Dodacanese, Aegean and W Turkey.

Wind gusts in excess of 110 km/h are indicated on Sunday already for the Gulf of Lyon and next with its evolvement again Bura winds over the Adriatic and strong gusts for N Aegean, Cyclades and Dodecanese.

According to the latest runs the low gradually moves towards Iberia by the end of next week, but there remain lots of uncertainties. Initially, the Genua low looks to be persistent and remains almost stationary.

Expected weather events are locally strong thunderstorms in quite a sheared environment, accompanied by excessive rainfall, hail and tornadic waterspout events in the aforementioned areas. Snow for higher altitudes. Again this environment is favorable for convection to occur while the sea water temperatures are still relative warm and the cooler airmass plunges south, the instability builds.

Arpege indicates up to 100 mm, locally even more, of accumulations for parts of Greece, W Turkey, Corsica, N Spain and Pyrenees (snow) until Tuesday 18z.





Winter Wonderland Kahler Asten – Germany

Winter Wonderland Kahler Asten – Germany

Magical wintry sceneries like a fairy tail during dense fog, accompanied by hard #rime and up to 40 cm of #snow on Kahler Asten hill, Germany.
Persistent fog for a few consecutive days has generated the trees into ice sculptures!

#schnee#reifbildung#sauerland#winterSource: Anita van Voorst *Meteo Europe*

Beautiful Winter Scenery / Kahler Asten – Germany

Beautiful Winter Scenery / Kahler Asten – Germany

Arctic scenes, fog and hard rime at Kahler Asten Germany currently

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Arctic scenes, fog and hard rime at Kahler Asten Germany currently

Posted by Meteo Europe on Sonntag, 8. Januar 2017

Incredible Ammount of Snow in Italy.

Incredible Ammount of Snow in Italy.

Incredible Ammount of Snow in Italy.

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Up to 200cm #Snow were reported from #Pescoconstanzo #Italy yesterday. Source : La meteo

Posted by Meteo Europe Weather Photo's on Sonntag, 8. Januar 2017